Research Articles

2018  |  Vol: 3(1)  |  Issue: 1(January-February) |
Effects of crude methanol extract of Cucumis metuliferus fruits (Cucurbitaceae) on White Blood Cells in Cockerels

Joy Gararawa Usmana,d*, Olufunke Adebola Sodipob, Ayi Vandi Kwaghec, Bitrus Wampanad, Nendir John Haruna Umarua, Umar Kyari Sandabed

aNational Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria

bDepartment of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

cLivestock Department and Pest Control Services, Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Area 11, Garki, Abuja, Nigeria.

dDepartment of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author:

Joy Gararawa Usman

National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria


Background: Cucumis metuliferus, a fruit used by poultry farmers in some parts of Nigeria to combat some poultry diseases such as Fowl Typhoid, Gumboro and Newcastle disease. The people of Plateau State in Nigeria eat the fruit believing that it cures HIV/AIDS. White blood cells are known to fight against diseases, hence the need to study the effect of this fruit on white blood cells. Hypothesis/Purpose: To find out the effect of the prolonged administration of the extract on total white blood cell (WBC) count, differential leucocyte count (DLC) and absolute differential leucocyte count (ADLC) was calculated. This will establish the plant use in the treatment of diseases. Material and methods: Twenty seven weeks old cockerels were used for this study. They were randomly divided into four groups of 5 chicken each (groups A, B, C and D). Cockerels in group D served as the untreated control and were given only feed and distilled water daily for a period of 28 days. The cockerels in groups A, B and C were treated daily orally with graded doses of crude methanol extract (CME), (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg respectively). Results: There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the value of total WBC from day 14 in all the treated groups while those that were given 600 mg/kg had a significant (p<0.05) increase from day 7. The result of the DLC showed that there was a significant (p<0.05) increase on lymphocytes percent in all the treated groups from day 7 when compared to their day 0, while the percentage of monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils showed a significantly (p<0.05) decrease in all the treated groups. The result of absolute DLC showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in the values of lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils, while that of basophils showed no significant difference throughout the periods of experiment in all the treated groups. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the plant Cucumis metuliferus increased the level of white blood cells and may probably stimulate the immune system.

Keywords: Cucumis metuliferus, white blood cell, cockerels


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