Yunusa Umar Abubakar1*, Dalha Wada Taura2, Muhammad Yushau2, Adam Uba Muhammad2
1Department of Animal Health College of Agriculture Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria
2Department of Microbiology, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
*Address for Corresponding Author
Yunusa Umar Abubakar
Department of Animal Health College of Agriculture Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria
Background: Newcastle disease is an acute, highly contagious and rapidly spreading viral disease of domestic poultry and other wild species of birds. The disease is caused by a single stranded, non-segmented, negative sense RNA virus, also known as Avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1) and currently have no means of treatment except vaccination. Objective: Aim of present study was carried out to ascertain the antiviral activities of Cannabis sativa plant extracts against velogenic strain of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). Material and methods: Phytochemical study was done for the screening of various chemical constituents. Antiviral activity was assessed on a velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus using embryonated chicken eggs assay. Toxicity study was carried out through determination of EID50. Results: The findings of this study revealed the presence of bioactive compounds such as alkaloid, flavonoid, tannins, phenol, steroids, glycoside, saponins and triterpenoid in Cannabis sativa extracts. The findings on the toxicity of Cannabis sativa plant extracts showed that the extracts were relatively non-toxic. However, minute toxicity was observed in lower concentrations of 20 and 40mg/ml of petroleum ether seed, ethyl-acetate seed, ethyl-acetate leave and in methanol seed extracts. Methanol seed and leaves extracts had the highest antiviral activity against NDV as embryo mortality was not observed during the study at various extract concentrations. There is significant antiviral activity of Cannabis sativa plant extracts against Newcastle disease virus (p<0.05). Conclusion: Thus, Cannabis sativa plant extracts are viable therapeutic agents that could serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities that brings about breakthrough in the treatment of NDV.
Keywords: Newcastle disease, Cannabis sativa, phytochemicals, antiviral, poultry