Research Articles

2020  |  Vol: 5(2)  |  Issue: 2(March-April) | https://doi.org/10.31024/apj.2020.5.2.3
Evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activity of methanol extract of Combretum hypopilinum Diels (Combretaceae) leaves in mice

Mubarak Hussaini Ahmad1, 2*, Abdulkadir Umar Zezi1, Sherifat Bola Anafi1, Mustapha Mohammed3,4, Rabiu Nuhu Danraka1, Zakariyya Alhassan1

1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

2School of Pharmacy Technician, Aminu Dabo College of Health Sciences and Technology, Kano State, Nigeria

3Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

4School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains, Malaysia, 11800, Pulau Penang, Malaysia

*Corresponding Author

Mubarak Hussaini Ahmad

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

School of Pharmacy Technician, Aminu Dabo College of Health Sciences and Technology, Kano State, Nigeria

 

Abstract

Background: Medicinal plants have been used in traditional medicine for the management of several diseases. The plant Combretum hypopilinum has been used for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery and other diseases in Nigeria without scientific validation. Objective: This study aims to investigate the antidiarrhoeal potential of the methanol extract of Combretum hypopilinum leaves (MECH) in mice. Methods: Phytochemical screening was conducted using standard methods and the acute toxicity study was conducted according to the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 423 guideline.  The antidiarrhoeal activity of MECH was evaluated using castor oil-induced diarrhoea, castor oil-induced enteropooling and intestinal motility test in mice after oral administration of distilled water (10 ml/kg), MECH (250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg) and loperamide (5mg/kg). Results: Phytochemical screenings of MECH were revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, steroids, triterpenes and alkaloids. The oral median lethal dose (LD50) of MECH was estimated to be greater than 5,000 mg/kg. The extract at 500 and 1,000 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05) reduced the number of diarrhoeal stools. In addition, the extract significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.01) decreased the volume of intestinal fluid at 500 and 1,000 mg/kg respectively. There was significant (p<0.05 and p<0.001) decrease in the charcoal movement at 500 and 1,000 mg/kg respectively. Conclusion: The methanol extract of Combretum hypopilinum leaves contain bioactive compounds that may be responsible for its antidiarrhoeal activity possibly through antisecretory and antimotility effects, thus supporting its folkloric claim.

Keywords: Combretum hypopilinum; antidiarrhoeal activity; castor oil; diarrhoea; intestinal motility

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