Research Articles

2018  |  Vol: 3(3)  |  Issue: 3 (May-June) | https://doi.org/10.31024/apj.2018.3.3.5
Phytochemical Screening and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Dialium guineense (Jacq) Fruit Pulp

Emmanuel Mshelia Halilu1*, Millicient Ladi Umaru2, Troy Malgwi Salvia3, Musa Yusuf Dibal3, Abdulrahman Adamu Isah4, Shehu Ibrahim Baba Baburo5

1Deparment of Pharmacognosy and Ethnomedicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sokoto – Nigeria

2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto-Nigeria

3Deparment of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, Borno state-Nigeria

4Department Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sokoto – Nigeria

5Yobe state College of Agriculture, Gujba, Damaturu, Yobe-State-Nigeria

*Address for Corresponding Author

Emmanuel Mshelia Halilu

Deparment of Pharmacognosy and Ethnomedicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sokoto – Nigeria

Phone: +234(0)8069221840

Abstract

Objective: Dialium guineese is used in Nigerian traditional medicine for treatment of cancer, headache, pains and other diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the physicohemical parameters and antioxidant free radical scavenging activity of the Fruit Pulp. Materials and Methods: The seed pulp was evaluated for moisture content, ash value, acid insoluble ash, water soluble and alcohol soluble extractive values using standard procedures. The fruit pulp was extracted successively by maceration using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The phytochemical screening for the presence of saponins, phenolic compounds, steroids/triterpenoids, cardiac glycosides, vitamin C and carbohydrates were evaluated using standard methods. The free radical scavenging activity was determined using DPPH. Results and discussion: The results of for moisture content, ash value, acid insoluble ash, water soluble and alcohol soluble extractive values were found to be 4.0 %, 3.0 %, 1.5 %, 10.5 % and 6.0 % respectively. The results are within the acceptable limit of most crude drugs stated in various Pharmacopoeias. The methanol gave the highest percentage yield (12.94%), followed by ethyl acetate (0.22%) and then n-hexane with the least percentage yield of 0.15%. This observed trend may due to differences in polarity of the extracting solvent. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, phenolic compounds, steroids/triterpenoids, cardiac glycosides and vitamin C. Alkaloid was found to absent in all the extracts. The TLC profiling of the various extracts showed several spots of compounds with different Rf values. The qualitative screening of the presence of free radical scavenging compounds by TLC using DPPH showed that the n-hexane and the methanol extracts were highly active while the ethyl acetate extract was moderately active. The in vitro determination of free radical scavenging activity of the methanol extract at concentrations of 10 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL and 2.5 mg/mL, showed a decrease in percentage inhibition from 19.82%, 5.61% and 1.92%. The activity demonstrated by the methanol extract was concentration dependent. On the other hand, the activity demonstrated by the ascorbic acid (standard) was far greater when compared with the methanol extract. At concentration of 5 mg/mL, 2.5 mg/mL and 1.25 mg/mL, the percentage inhibition of the ascorbic acid decreases from 70.35%, 60.10% and 58.94%. The free radical scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts has revealed the potential of Dialium guineese as a good source of antioxidant.

Keywords: Dialium guineense, Phytochemical, Antioxidant, Phenolic Content and Toxicity

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